Interviewing As Qualitative Research Ja

Interviewing as Qualitative Research

Interviewing is a method of research to tell the argument between the camps on the significance of language to inquiry with human being- To understand human behaviour

The purpose of interviewing:
 Understanding the lived experience of other people and the meaning they make of that experience

Three Interview Series

Interview one: Focused Lift History

This interview one will be focused on Lift History. Because the topic of this interview study is their experience by asking “How?”

Interview two: The Details of Experience

The purpose of the second interview is to concentrate on the details of the participants’ present lived experience in the topic area of the study. The researcher does not ask for opinions but rater the details of their experience.

Interview three: Reflection on the Meaning

The researcher asks participants to reflect on the meaning of their experience. The very process of putting experience into language is “Meaning-Making Process”.

Structure of Interview

 Length of Interview- a 90-minute format (from 90 minutes to 30 minutes)
 Spacing of Interview- Interviewer can space each interview from 3 days to a week apart

Validity and Reliability

 Validity: Understand how our participants understand and make meaning of their experience
 Reliability: Interviewer can be a marvelously smart, adaptable, flexible instrument who can respond to situations with skill, tact, and understanding

Experience the Process yourself

 Practice project- Team up with peer
 Use the three-interview structure
 Benefits:
 Experience interviewing and being interviewed
 See whether you connect to the possibilities of the process
 Alert you to how the way you are as a person affects your interviewing

Proposing Research

There are 3 substantive functions:
 To plan: Writing of the proposal- Planning function
 Assess where they have been and make a commitment to where they would like to go
 To communication: To focus first on what is meaningful
 To establish a contract: Focused free-writing

Questions to Structure the Proposal

Proposal writers need to ask themselves some simple questions. There can be divided into several groups:

 What?
 What am I interested?
 What am I trying to learn about and understand?
 What is the basis of my interest?
 Why?- Reviews of the literature
 Why is the subject significant?
 Why is the background important to understand?
 How?- How can they adapt the structure of in-depth interviewing
 Who? When? Where?- Whom the researchers will interview and how they will get access and make contact with their participants

Piloting Your work

The best advise as a researcher was to do a pilot of proposed study. It will guide researcher along strange paths or through dangerous places.

The Perils of Easy Access

Beginning interviewers tend to look for the easiest path to their potential participants.

 Interviewing People whom you supervise
 Interviewing your students
 Interviewing Acquaintances: Participants whom they know but not in a way related to the subject of study
 Interviewing Friends: The interviewers and the participants who are friends usually assume that they understand each other.

Access to Participant

When interviewers try to contact potential participants whom they do not know, they often face gatekeepers who control access to those periods. Moreover, if a researcher’s study involves participants below the age of 18, they need to involve the gatekeepers as the participants’ parents.

However, to make contact with participants, researcher needs to following this belowed procedure:

 Making Contact:
 Do it yourself (Try not to rely on third parties to make contact with your potential participants)
 Explain your project to participants
 Building the interviewing relationship
 Making a contact visit in person:
 Telephone is a first step in making contact
 Only a brief introduction
 An explanation of how the interviewer gained access to the person’s name, and a decision on when to meet- Set up time

Some Logistical Considerations

 To facilitate communication, confirmation of appointments, and follow-up after the interviews, it is important for interviewers to develop a database of their participants
 The form usually has 2 Purposes:
 To facilitate communication between the interviewer and the participants
 To record data
 Include the participants’ home and work addresses, telephone numbers, and e-mail address, the best time to be in touch with them and the time to avoid calling them

Selecting Participants

The purpose of an in-dept interview study is to understand the experience of those who are interviewed, not to predict or to control that experience.

However, one step toward assuring generalizability is to select a sample that is representative of the lager population.

There are a lot of methods:

 Randomized or Stratified method
 Purposeful Sampling:
 Typical Case
 Extreme or deviant case
 Critical case
 Sensitive case
 Convenience
 Maximum variation- The most effective basic strategy for selecting participants for interview studies

How many participants are enough?

 There are 2 criteria:
 Sufficiency: Are there sufficient numbers to reflect population?
 Saturation
 The criteria of sufficiency and saturation are useful, but practical exigencies of time, money, and other resources also play a role

Basic Ethical Principles

There are 3 basic ethical principles that must be observed in research with human beings:

1. Respect for Persons: Respect for individuals’ autonomy and the need to protect those whose human condition results in reduced autonomy
2. Beneficence: To maximize benefits and minimize risk when considering research with humans
3. Justice: Must be fair to all who participate

Eight Major Paths of Informed Consent

Consent from adapted to in-depth interviewing should cover 8 major parts:

1. An invitation to participant in what, to what end, how, how long, and for whom?

This introduction would be followed with a brief statement of the purpose of the research, how it will be conducted, for how long, and whether there are any sponsors of the research.

2. Risks

The Potential Risks of vulnerability or discomfort for the participant that might result from taking part in the research.

3. Rights

Participation in the research is voluntary and refusal to participant in particular. Participants have the right to drop out of a study at any time. Moreover, the participants also have the right to request the material from their interviews before they are published.

4. Possible benefits

The possible benefits of the study in general and for the participant in particular.

5. Confidentiality of records

The researcher will take to make sure the participant’s identity is kept confidential.

6. Dissemination

The tape belongs jointly to both the participant and the researcher. Another aspect of the researcher’s plans that should be made clear to the participant is the extent to which the researcher might use the material from the interview.

7. Special conditions for children

Researcher should get the allowance from their gatekeepers for children under 18.

8. Contact information and copies of the form

Participants must be able to contact the researcher before, during, and after the interviews are completed to ask the researcher about the questions or concerns about the researcher. Moreover, the consent form must be written in language free of jargon, and should be written in the language the participant is able to comprehend most effectively.

Interview Technique

 Listen More, Talk less
 Follow up on what the participant says
 Ask questions when you do not understand
 Ask to hear more about a subject
 Explore, Don’t Probe
 Ask Real question
 Avoid Leading Questions
 Ask Open-ended Questions
 Follow up, But don’t interrupt
 Apply 2 favorite approaches
 Ask Participate to talk to you as if you were someone else: Role-playing approach
 Ask Participate to tell a story
 Ask Participate to reconstruct, not to remember: Avoid asking participate to rely on their memories
 Keep Participate focused and ask for concrete details


 The interview’s goal is to transform his or her relationship with participant into an “I-Thou” relationship that verges on a “We” relationship.
 The interviewer would become an equal participant- Interview changes to conversation

Social Group Identities and the interviewing relationship

Issues of equity in an interviewing relationship are affected by the social identities that participants and interviewers bring to the interview.

 Race and Ethnicity
 Gender
 Class, Hierarchy, and status
 Linguistic Difference
 Age
 Elites

Distinguish among Private, Personal, and Public Experience

Interviewer may find it useful to distinguish among public, personal, and private aspects of a participants.

 Public- What participants do in public places
 Private- Involve matters of intimacy like aspects or relationships

Analyzing, Interpreting and Sharing Interview Material

 Managing the data
 Work with material for interviewing generates
 The researcher has to make it accessible and organizing
 Keeping track of participant information and all detail

 Tape-Recording Interviews
 To Tape-Record the interviews
 To transcribe the interviews
 To Preserve the words of participants
 To study interviewing techniques and improve them

 Transcribing Interview Tapes
 Time-consuming and costly work
 Take 4 to 6 Hrs to transcribe a 90-minute tape
 Using computer-based word-processing program
 Ideal solution: Hire a transcriber- expensive

 Studying, Reducing, and Analyzing the Text
 Arrange/ Reduce words, sentences, paragraphs and pages
 Reducing the data- Inductively (not deductively)

 Sharing Interview Data: Profiles and Themes
 There are 2 basic ways to share interview data:
 Developed profiles of individual participants and grouped them in categories
 Studies the categories for connections within and among them

 Interpreting the Material
 Interpreting is the last stage
 Ask researcher what meaning they have made of their work

Reference: Interviewing as Qualitative Research: A guide for researchers in Education and the social science, Third Edition

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