Data Collection Ja

Chapter 7: Data Collection

The Data Collection Circle

There are 7 step in the data collection circle:

1. The circle starts with locating a site or an individual to study, which is an important step in the process that is to find people or places to study.
2. After that, gain access to and establish rapport with participants so that they will provide good data.
3. Then, do Purposeful sampling. This is not a probability sample, but the purposeful sampling will choose the sample a group of people that can best inform the researcher about the research problem.

There are several types of sampling strategies in qualitative inquiry

Type of Sampling Purpose
Maximum Variation Documents diverse variations and identifies important common pattern
Homogeneous Focuses, reduces, simplifies, and facilitates group interviewing
Critical case Permits logical generalization and maximum application of information to other cases
Theory based Find examples of a theoretical construct and thereby elaborate on and examine it
Confirming and disconfirming cases
Elaborate on initial analysis, seek exceptions, looking for variation
Snowball or chain
Identifies cases of interest from people who know what cases are information-rich
Extreme or deviant case
Learn from highly unusual manifestations of the phenomenon of interest
Typical case
Highlight what is normal or average
Information- rich cases that manifest the phenomenon intensely but not extremely

Politically important
Attracts desired attention or avoids attracting undesired attention
Random purposeful
Adds creditability to sample when potential purposeful sample is too large

Stratified purposeful
Illustrates subgroups and facilitates comparisons

All cases that meet some criterion

Taking advantage of the unexpected
Combination or mixed
Meets multiple interests and needs

Save time, money, and effort, but at the expense of information and credibility

4. Moreover, researcher also needs to make decision how to do the data collection, which have a lot of methods such as e-mail messages and online data gathering.

All forms might be grouped into 4 basic types of information: Observations, Interviews, Documents and Audiovisual materials:

• Interviewing

Identify interviewees based on purposeful sampling procedure
Determine what type of interview is practical and will net the most useful information to answer research questions
Telephone interview: The best source of information when researcher does not have direct access to individuals
A focus group interview: The interaction among interviewees will yield the best information
One-on-one interview: To encourage all participants to talk
Use adequate recording procedures when conducting one-on-one or focus group interviews
Lapel mike
Design a form for interview:
4 or 5 pages in length with
Approximately 5 open-ended questions and
Ample space between the questions to write the responses to the interviewee’s comments
The questions are narrowing of the central question and sub questions in the research study
Refine the pilot test of interview questions and the procedures:
To refine and develop research instruments
To assess the degrees of observer bias
To frame questions
To collect background information
To adapt research procedures
Determine the place of conducting the interview
Good time management in interview
Stay to the question: Be respectful and courteous and offer few questions and advice

• Observing

Select a site to be observed
Identify who or what to observe, when and for how long
Record aspects
After observing, thanking the participant and informing them of the use of the data and their accessibility to the study

5. To collect this information, the researcher develops protocols or written forms for recording the information.

The instructions for using to interview protocol:

Use a header to record essential information
Place space between questions
Memorize the questions and their order to minimize losing eye contact with the participant
Write out the closing comments that thank the individual for the interview and request follow-up information

6. The researcher also needs to anticipate issues of data collection, called “field issue”, such as having inadequate data.

Types of issues that may arise during data collection
Access to the Organization- Convincing individuals to participate in the study, building trust and credibility at the field site
Interviews: Focus in the mechanics of conducting the interview
Documents and Audiovisual Materials
Documents: Journaling is a popular data collection process in case studies and narrative research
Audiovisual Materials: Location during interviewing
Ethical Issues

7. Finally, researcher must decide how to store data, which is easy to find and protects from damage or loss.

The process of data storage in qualitative research include in the following:

Backup copies
Use high-quality tapes for audio-recording information during interview
Make sure the size of the types fits the transcriber’s machine
Develop a master list of tapes of information gathered
Protect the anonymity of participants by masking their names in the data
Develop a data collection matrix: locating and identifying information for a study

Five Approaches Compared

There are both differences and similarities among the activities of data collection
Diversity of information collected
The unit of study being examined
The extent of field issues discussed in the literature
The intrusiveness of the data collection effort
Data collection approach: Observations and Interviews
Recording Protocols and forms for storing data

Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design (2nd ed) by John W. Creswell

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